• Professor of Radiology at Faculty of Medicine-Cairo University-Egypt
  • Head of Radiology Department-Faculty of Medicine-Cairo University, Egypt
  • Member of the Egyptian Mummy Project (Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities)
  • Member of the Scientific Committee of Scenario of Exhibitions at NMEC (National Museum of the Egyptian Civilization)-Cairo-Egypt
  • Invited Visiting Professor, Faculty of Archaeology, University of Tennessee, USA; University of Western Ontario, Canada


  • Bachelor of Medicine (MBBCh): Cairo University-Egypt
  • Master of Science (MSc) Radio-diagnosis: Faculty of Medicine-Cairo University
  • Medical Doctorate (MD) in Radio-diagnosis: Faculty of Medicine-Cairo University
  • Fellowship of Neuroradiology: University of Western Ontario-London (ON)-Canada
  • Fellowship of Education & Research: University of Western Ontario-Canada


University of Western Ontario-London (ON)-Canada


Books & Books Chapters 

Scanning the Pharaohs


  • Winner of PROSE Award: 'The Best Popular Science Book' in 2017 & CHOICE Award: 'Outstanding Academic Title for 2016
  •  AUC Press 2016


New Techniques

Chapter in a book

Fetal Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR)

In Tech 2012

Pharaoh: art and power in ancient Egypt 

Chapter in a book

Royal mummification during the New Kingdom

The Trustees of the British Museum 2024


Radiology Education:

The evaluation and assessment of clinical competence.        

Chapter in a Book

Measuring Competence of Radiology Education Programs & residents: The Egyptian Experience

Springer 2012

Pharmacy and Medicine in Ancient Egypt 

Proceedings of 3rd International Conference (Barcelona, 2018)

Chapter in a book

Egyptian Medical Civilization from Dawn of History to Kasr Al Ainy School 

 Archaeopress, 2021.

MRI of Fetal & Maternal Diseases in Pregnancy

Chapter in a book

How to read and to report a fetal MRI

Springer 2016 

Guardian of Ancient Egypt

Studies in honour of Z Hawass

Chapter in a book

A child Mummy in a pot: CT Study &  insights on child burials in Ancient Egypt 

Charles University Prague 2020 

The Royal Mummies Catalogue-NMEC

Chapters in a book

Chapter 2: Mummification

Chapter 3: Radiological Examination

Chapter 4: Catalogue of Kings

The Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities- 2021

Radiology Education:

The scholarship of teaching and learning

Chapter in a Book

Radiology Education in the Faculty of Medicine at Cairo University

Springer 2008

Advances in Paleoimaging

 Applications for paleoanthropology, Bioarchaeology, Forensics, and cultural artefacts

Chapter in a book

Development of Study Strategies (interpretation) 

CRC 2020

كتالوج المومياوات الملكية

متحف الحضارة المصرية

فصول في الكتاب: 

الفصل الثاني: التحنيط

الفصل الثالث: الفحص بالأشعة

الفصل الرابع: وصف الملوك

وزارة السياحة و الآثار المصرية ٢٠٢١

Publications in Peer-reviewed Scientific Journals

  1. Saleem SN, El-Merghani S. Paleoradiological and scientific investigations of the screaming mummy from the area beneath Senmut's (1479-1458 BC) Theban Tomb (TT71). Frontiers in Medicine 2024; 11 doi: 10.3389/fmed.2024.1406225
  2. Wilkinson CM, Saleem SN, Liu CYJ, Roughley M. Revealing the face of Ramesses II through computed tomography digital 3D facial reconstruction and computer-generated imagery. Journal of Archaeological Science 2023; 160: 105884
  3. Saleem S, Bianucci R, Galassi FM and Nerlich AG (2023) Editorial: Ancient diseases and medical care: Paleopathological insights. Front. Med. 10:1140974. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2023.1140974 PMID 27827765
  4. Saleem SN, Seddik SA and el-Halwagy M (2023) Scanning and three-dimensional-printing using computed tomography of the "Golden Boy" mummy. Front. Med. 9:1028377. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2022.102837
  5. Abdel-Salam GMH, Afifi H.H., Saleem SN et al. Further evidence of a continuum in the Clinical Spectrum of Dominant PIEZO2-Related Disorders and Implications in Cerebellar Anomalies. Molecular Syndromology 2022; 13 (5): 389–396 PMID: 36588752
  6. Saleem SN. A Radiological reassessment of the 'pregnant mummy': A comment to Ejsmond et al., 2021. Journal of Archaeological Science 2022; 137(6); 105508
  7. Saleem SN, Hawass Z. Digital Unwrapping of the Mummy of King Amenhotep I (1525-1504 BC) Using CT. Front Med (Lausanne). 2021 Dec 28;8:778498. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2021.778498. PMID: 35028305; PMCID: PMC8748262.
  8. Saleem SN, Hawass Z. Imaging the past in situ: Paleoradiology and Saqqara Necropolis excavation. InPractice 2021; 15(2) DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.27562.54726
  9. Sahar SN. Egyptian Medical Civilization from Dawn of History to Kasr Al Ainy School. Pharmacy and Medicine in Ancient Egypt 2021; 104–115
  10. Saleem SN, Hawass Z. Computed tomography study of the mummy of King Seqenenre Taa II: New insights into his violent death. Front. Med February 2021; (8): 637527 doi: 10.3389/fmed.2021.637527 PMID: 33681262
  11. Saleem SN, Sabah Abdel Razek Sedik, Mahmoud el-Halwagy. A Child Mummy in a Pot: Computed Tomography Study and Insights on Child Burials in Ancient Egypt. In Janice Kamrin, Miroslav Barta, Salima Ikram, Mark Lehner, Mohamed Megahed (Eds) Guardian Of Ancient Egypt: Studies in honor of Zahi Hawass. Charles University , Faculty of Arts, Prague Volume 3: 1393-1403. ISBN: 978-80-7308-979-5 ISBN: 978-80-7308-978-8 (Set) ISBN: 978-80-7308-981-8 (Vol. 3)
  12. Beckett RG, Conloque GJ, Viner MD, Saleem SN, Said A-H, Piombino-Mascali D. A paleoimaging study of human mummies held in the Mother Church of Gangi, Sicily: Implications for mass casualty methodology. Forensic Imaging 2020 November 6; volume 23 200416,ISSN 2666-2256,DOI
  13. Hawass Z, Saleem SN. Computed tomography examination of the screaming mummy "Unknown-Woman-A. EJRNM 2020; 50(1) DOI: 10.1186/s43055-020-00255-6
  14. Escande-Beillard N, Loh A, Saleem, SN, et al. Loss of PYCR2 causes neurodegeneration by increasing cerebral glycine levels vial SHMT2. Neuron 2020; online April 23, 2020. DOI:
  15. Ibrahim D, El Fiki YA, Hafez M, Saleem S. Report of a case of cavernous haemangioma of the cavernous sinus. BJR Case reports, 2019. 10.1259/bjrcr.20190031
  16. Wade A, Beckett R, Conlogue G, Garvin G, Saleem S, Natale G, Caramella D, Nelson A Diagnosis by consensus: A case study in the importance of interdisciplinary interpretation of mummified remains. International Journal of Paleopathology 2019 March, 24: 144-153. PMID 30388585
  17. Guemez-Gamboa A, Cadiavan AO, Stanley V, Gregor S, Zaki MS, Saleem SN, et al. Loss of Protocahdherin-12 leads to Diencephalic-Mesencephalic junction Dysplasia syndrome. Ann Neurol 2018 Nov; 84(5):638-647 (ISSN Print: 0364-5134)
  18. Nabhan MM, ElKhateeb N, Braun DA, Eun S, Saleem SN, YungGee H, Hildebrandt F, Soliman NA. Cystic kidneys in fetal Walker-Warburg syndrome with POMT2 mutation: intrafamilial phenotyptc variability in four siblings and review of literature. American Journal of Medical Genetics A AJMGA 2017; AJMGA 2017; 173(10): 2697-2702
  19. Saleem SN, Hawass Z. Computed tomography study of the feet of mummy of Ramesses III: New insights on the Harem Conspiracy. J Comput Assist Tomogr 2017, 41(1):15-17 doi: 10.1097/RCT.0000000000000489
  20. Said A-H, · El-Kattan E, · Abdel-Hakeem AK, ·Saleem S. In utero MRI diagnosis of fetal malformations in oligohydramnios pregnancies. EJRNM 2016; 47(4):1733-1742 August 2016.
  21. Abdel‐Salam G, Abdel‐Hamid MS, El‐Khayat HA, Eid OA, Saba S, Farag MK, Saleem S, Gaber K. Fetal brain disruption sequence versus fetal brain arrest: A distinct autosomal recessive developmental brain malformation phenotype. American Journal of Medical Genetics A 2015; 167(5):1089-1099
  22. Saleem SN, Hawass Z. Subcutaneous packing in Royal Egyptian mummies dated from 18th to 20th Dynasties. J Comput Assist Tomogr 2015 May-Jun;39(3):301-6.
  23. El-Bassyouni HT, Abdel Salam GH, Saleem SN, Kayed HF, Eid MM, Shihab M, Zaki ME, Zaki MS. Holoprosencephaly spectrum among Egyptian Patients: clinical and cytogenetic study. Genetic Counseling 2014;25(4):369-381
  24. Saleem SN, Hawass Z. Ankylosing spondylitis or diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) in Royal Egyptian mummies of 18th-20th Dynasties? CT and archaeology studies. Arthritis and Rheumatology Dec 2014; 66(12): 3311–3316
  25. A Youssef, S Zagonari, G Salsi, SN Saleem, J Krsmanovic, G Pacella. Prenatal diagnosis of isolated butterfly vertebra. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology Dec 2014; 44(6):26-7. DOI: 10.1002/uog.13457
  26. Saleem SN, Hawass Z. Multidetector computed tomographic study of amulets, jewelry, and other foreign objects in royal Egyptian mummies dated from the 18th to 20th dynasties. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2014 Mar-Apr;38(2):153-8. doi: 10.1097/RCT.0b013e3182ab2221.
  27. Saleem SN. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging: an approach to practice. Journal of Advanced Research (JAR).. September 2014; 5(5):507-523
  28. Saleem SN. Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): A Tool for a Better Understanding of Normal and Abnormal Brain Development. J Child Neurol July 2013(7):889-907 doi:10.1177/08830738134862
  29. Saleem SN, Hawass Z. Variability in Brain Treatment During Mummification of Royal Egyptians Dated to the 18th–20th Dynasties: MDCT Findings Correlated With the Archaeologic Literature. AJR 2013; 200(4): W336-W344
  30. Lancaster, M. A., Gopal D. J., Kim J., Saleem S. N., Silhavy J. L., Louie C. M., Thacker B. E., Williams Y., Zaki M. S., and Gleeson J. G.. "Defective Wnt-dependent cerebellar midline fusion in a mouse model of Joubert syndrome", Nature Medicine 2012; 17(6): 726–731.
  31. Hawass Z, Ismail S, Selim A, Saleem SN, Fathalla D, Wasef S, Gad AZ, Saad R, Fares S, Amer H, Gostner P, Gad YZ, Pusch CM, Zink AR. Revisiting the harem conspiracy and death of Ramesses III: anthropological, forensic, radiological, and genetic study. BMJ. 2012 Dec 14;345:e8268.
  32. Abdel-Salam G, Abdel-Hamid MS, Saleem SN, Ahmed MKH , Issa M, Effat LK, Kayed HF, Zaki MS, Gaber KR. Profound Microcephy, Primordial Dwarfism with Developemental Brain malformations: A New Syndrome. American Journal of Medical Genetics A2012; 158A(8):1823-1831.
  33. Zaki, MS, Saleem SN, Dobyns WB, Barkovich AJ, Bartsch H, Dale AM, Ashtari M, Akizu N,. Gleeson JG, and Grijalvo-Perez AM. Diencephalic–mesencephalic junction dysplasia: a novel recessive brain malformation", Brain 2012; 135 (8): , 2416–2427
  34. Hawass Z, Saleem SN. Reply to "Letter to the Editor: Forensic and pathologist remarks concerning the mummified fetuses of King Tutankhamun". AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2012 June
  35. Hawass Z, Saleem SN. Mummified daughters of King Tutankhamun: Archaeological and CT studies. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011 Nov;197(5):W829-36.
  36. Saleem S N, Zaki M S, Soliman N A, Momtaz M. Prenatal MRI diagnosis of molar tooth sign at 17-18 weeks of gestation in two fetuses at risk for Joubert Syndrome and related cerebellar disorders. Neuropediatrics 2011;42:35-38
  37. Zaki MS, Abdel Salam GMH, Saleem SN, Dobyns WB, Issa MY, Sattar S, Gleeson JG.. New Recessive Syndrome of Microcephaly, Cerebellar Hypoplasia, and Congenital Heart Conduction Defect. Am J Med Genet A. 2011 Oct 14; 155(12):3035-3041. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.34078 .
  38. Saleem SN, Zaki MS. Role of Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in prenatal diagnosis of pregnancies at risk for Joubert Syndrome and Related Cerebellar Disorders (JSRD). American Journal of Neuroradiology AJNR 2010 Mar;31(3):424-9.
  39. Behairy NH, Talaat S, Saleem SN, Abd El-Raouf M. Magnetic resonance imaging in fetal anomalies: What does it add to 3D and 4D US? Eur J Radiol. 2010 Apr;74(1):250-5. Epub 2009 Mar 25.
  40. Saleem SN, Said AH, Abdel-Raouf M, El-Kattan E, Zaki MS, Madkour N , Shokry M. Fetal MRI in the evaluation of fetuses referred for sonographically suspected neural tube defects (NTDs): impact on diagnosis and management decision. Neuroradiology 2009; 51(11):761-772.
  41. Aglan MS, Abdel-Aleem AK, EL-Katoury A IS, Hafez MH, Saleem SN, Otaify GA, Temtamy SA. Clinical, anthropometric, radiological and molecular characteristics of Egyptian achondroplasia patients. Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics 2009: 10(1)
  42. Saleem SN. Feasibility of Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the fetal heart using balanced Steady-State-Free-Precession (SSFP) sequence along fetal body ad cardiac planes. American Journal of Roentgenology AJR 2008; October 191:1208-1215
  43. Abdel-Salam GMH, Zaki MS, Saleem SN, Gaber KR. Microcephaly, malformation of brain development and intracranial calcification in sibs: pseudo-TORCH or a new syndrome. Am J Med Genet A 2008;146:2929-2936.
  44. Zaki MS, Abdel-Aleem A, Abdel-Salam GMH, Marsh S, Silhavy J, Barkovich AJ, Ross M-E, Saleem SN, Dobyns WB, Gleeson JG. The Molar tooth sign: a new Joubert syndrome classification system tested in Egyptian families. Neurology (USA) 2008; 70:556-565.
  45. Saleem SN, Zaki MS, Eid M. The impact of fetal MRI findings on genetic counseling and management decision in high risk pregnancies for brain malformations. The Egyptian Journal of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine 2008; 1(2): 20-25
  46. Saleem SN, Said A-H. Role of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in management of epileptic patients with focal brain lesions. The Egyptian Journal of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine 2008; 39(1):269-278
  47. Selim L, Zaki MS, Hussein H, Saleem SN, Kotoury AS, Issa M. Developmental Abnormalities of Mid and Hindbrain: A Study of 22 Egyptian Patients. Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics 2008
  48. Saleem SN, Said A-H, Lee D. Lesions of the hypothalamus: MRI diagnostic features. Radiographics (USA) 2007; 27(4): 1087-1108
  49. Said A-H, Lownie S, Pelz D, Saleem SN. Cerebral Vasospasm Following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Haemorrhage. Neurographics (USA) 2006; 5 (1): 1-6. Available from: (Invited publication)
  50. Zaki MS, Kayed H, Saleem SN, Abdel-Salam GMH. Holoprosencephaly spectrum in Egyptian patients: Clinico-radiological and genetic aspects. The Egyptian Medical Journal of the National Research Centre MJNRC June 2005;4(2):19-33.
  51. Saleem SN. MRI Features of Neuro-Behcet disease. Neurographics 2005; 4(2):1-36 (Invited publication)
  52. Saleem SN, Belal A, ElGhandour N. Spinal cord schistosomiasis: MR imaging appearance with surgical and pathological correlation. American Journal of Neuroradiology AJNR 2005:26:1646-1654 (Invited publication)
  53. Aly YA, Saleem SN. Narrowed thoracic inlet causing esophageal pseudomass: a study by digital barium radiography & CT. The Egyptian Journal of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine 2003; 34 (2):12-18.
  54. Saleem SN, Shokry MA, A-Halim A, Said A-H. MR imaging of complex adnexal masses: Value of morphological analysis in prediction of malignancy. The Egyptian Journal of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine 2003; 34 (2): 33-41.
  55. El Meligy I, Saleem SN, Said A-H. Magnetic resonance imaging in children with cerebral palsy. The Egyptian Journal of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine 2003; 34 (2): 44-51
  56. Saleem SN. MR imaging diagnosis of uterovaginal anomalies: current state of the art. Radiographics 2003; 10.1148/rg.e13 (invited publication)
  57. Zaki MS, Saleem SN, Helmy NA. Clinico-radiological features of malformations of cerebral cortical development (MCD) in childhood and their genetic background. Medical Journal Of Cairo University 2002; 70(2):34-45
  58. Shokry MA, Saleem SN. Magnetic resonance imaging in the management of congenital anomalies of female reproductive system. Middle East Fertility Society Journal (MEFSJ) 2001; 6(2)
  59. Saleem SN, Eid ME. Role of magnetic resonance imaging in differentiation of histological subtypes and pre-operative evaluation of uterine leiomyomas. Middle East Fertility Society Journal MEFSJ 2001; 6(1).
  60. Zaki MS, El-Sabbagh H, Saleem SN. Neuronal migration disorders: clinical neuroimaging and neurophysiologic studies. The Gaz. Egypt. Paed 2001; 49: 4-7
  61. Shokry MA, Saleem SN. Combined intrauterine pregnancy and abdominal pregnancy: a case report. Middle East Fertility Society Journal (MEFSJ) 2000; 5(3)